For this very reason, there are numerous concepts to make large and small structures earthquake resistant and to avoid failure of the supporting structure: From an adaptation of the floor plan to basic insulation to active or passive vibration mitigation using absorbers and dampers.
- Preparation and review of specifications on the subject of earthquakes
- Design of structures made of reinforced concrete, steel and masonry for the load case earthquake according to European and international standards such as DIN EN 1998-1 and ASCE 7
- Verification of the load-bearing capacity and serviceability of structures and components made of reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete, steel and masonry
- Analyses by means of static and dynamic calculation methods as well as time history calculations
- Design of earthquake protection systems such as seismic isolation, dampers or absorbers
On 16 July 2007, a strong earthquake, the Niigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake (NCOE) affected the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the biggest nuclear power plant in the world, located at about 16 km from the epicenter. The large amount of observations and data collected led to the organization of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Research Initiative for Seismic Margin Assessment (KARISMA). Woelfel Beratende Ingenieure (Woelfel), Hoechberg, Germany was active during all three phases of the KARISMA Benchmark, starting with the generation and verification of the Finite Element (FE) model of the reactor building in Phase I.
For two NPP sites several buildings, analysed in the 1980s with stick models and simple spring-dampersoil models were re-analysed because of changed input parameters (new earthquake definitions, soil data, …) using 3D-FE-models combined with sophisticated soil-structure-interaction models (SASSI).
For a facility in the ‘front end’ of the nuclear fuel cycle located in France the structural assessment of steelwork and pipework systems located on a seismic slab for operation and seismic loads including basic and detail design is performed.